Personality disorder is defined as the totality of a person’s unique biopsychosocial and spiritual traits that consistently influence behavior.
The following traits are likely in individuals with a personality disorder:
- Interpersonal relations that ranges from distant to overprotective.
- Social anxiety
- Failure to conform to social norms.
- Self-destructive behaviors
- Manipulation and splitting.
Prognosis is poor, and clients experience long term disability and may have other psychiatric disorders.
Cluster A: The Eccentric and Mad group
- Paranoid – suspicious, jealous, short tempered.
- Schizotypal – superstitious, believes in magic, ideas of reference.
- Schizoid – doesn’t want to socialize, prefers to be alone, detached.
Cluster B: The Erratic and Bad group
- Antisocial – irresponsible, display lack of guilt, good at manipulation.
- Borderline – intense relationship, self-mutilation, impulsiveness.
- Histrionic – attention-seeking, self-centered, seductive, dramatic.
- Narcissistic – grandiose view of self lacks empathy for others.
Cluster C: The anxious and Sad group
- Obsessive compulsive – preoccupied with perfection, conscious of rules, self-critical, controlling.
- Avoidant – fearful of criticism and rejection, negative self-esteem, few social interactions.
- Dependent – submissive, clinging to others, unable to make decision by self.
Signs and Symptoms
- Inappropriate response to stress and inflexible approach to problem solving.
- Long term difficulties in relating to others, in school and in work situations.
- Demanding and manipulative.
- Ability to cause others to react with extreme annoyance or irritability.
- Poor interpersonal skills.
- Anger and aggression
- Difficulty with adherence to treatment.
- Harm to self or others.
- Ineffective individual coping
- Social isolation
- Impaired social interaction
- High risk for violence to self or others
- Work with the client to increase coping skills and identify need for improvement coping.
- Respond to the client’s specific symptoms and needs.
- Keep communication clear and consistent.
- Client may require physical restraints, seclusion/observation room, one to one supervision.
- Keep the client involved in treatment planning.
- Avoid becoming victim to the client’s involvement in appropriate self-help groups.
- Require the client take responsibility for his/her own behavior and the consequences for actions.
- Discuss with the client and family the possible environment and situational causes, contributing factors, and triggers.