Newborns can turn their heads to move them out of a position where breathing is impaired when placed lying on their abdomen. However, they cannot hold them raised.
- One month old infants can lift their heads and turn them easily to sides. As what they usually do during the neonatal period, they still tend to keep their knees tucked under their abdomen.
- A month after, infants can now raise their heads and maintained the position. But they cannot raise their chests and their head is still facing downward.
- Three month old infants can raise their head and shoulders well. They can now look around when prone.
- By four months of age, an infant’s chest can be raised from the bed.
- Weight is shifted to the forearms when the child is placed on prone by age 5 months.
- The infant can raise his or her chests and upper parts of the body off the table by 6 months of age.
- A new skill is advanced by age 9 months when the infant can creep from a prone position. Creeping means that the child has the abdomen off the floor and moves one hand and one leg and then the other hand and leg, using the knees on the floor to move.
By four months of age the infant demonstrates an important milestone by showing no head lag when pulled to a sitting position. An infant can sit without support by 8 months of age.
A child can stand holding onto furniture when placed in a standing position by about 9 months. A month after they can now pull themselves to a standing position by holding onto something. By 11 months, they start to move around by holding onto something, an event called cruising. At exactly 1 year, the child can stand alone momentarily.
- Fine Motor Development
- During the first month of life, the infant has a strong grasp reflex. This is the reason why they have difficulty extending their fingers as they hold their hands in fist.
- Thumb opposition starts by 4 months of age where the infant brings the thumb and the fingers together.
- During the first half of the year, infants are now able to hold objects in both hands and they can hold a spoon.
- The ability to bring the thumb and the fist together in a pincer grasp is a major milestone of 10 month old children.
- As the skill advances, by 1 year, infants are now able to draw a semi straight line using a crayon.
- Language Development
1 month: cooing or dovelike sounds made by the infant
2 months: differentiates cry. Certain cry means the infant is hungry while this type of cry would suggest that the child is wet. Increased cooing, gurgling and throaty sounds observed.
3 months: squeals with pleasure
4 months: babbles, gurgles and coos when spoken to.
5 months: verbalizes simple vowel sounds such as “goo-goo” and “gah-gah”
6 months: art of imitating is learned. The infant at this time may imitate parent’s cough or say “Oh!” to attract attention.
7 months: amount of infant talking increases
9 months: first infant word is verbalized as “da-da” or “ma-ma.” It is generally easier for infants to verbalize “da-da” than “ma-ma” and infants at this time pronounce these words without knowing its meaning.
10 months: infant masters another words such as “bye-bye” or “no”
12 months: infants can generally say two words besides “ma-ma” and “da-da.” These words are used knowing that “ma-ma” is calling his mother and “da-da” for fathers.