The term school age refers to children between the ages 6 and 12 years of age. These years represent the period of slow physical growth. However, cognitive growth and development continue to proceed at rapid rates.
6 years – skipping is a new skill learned by the child, authority figure is the first grade teacher, difficulty adjusting to all-day school may be noted during this time that may result to nervous manifestations like fingernail biting and etc, at this time the words are defined by the school age based on their use, eruption of first molar occurs
7 years – during play difference between sexes become apparent, conservation is learned, able to tell the time can make simple change, eruption of central incisors
8 years – definitely improved coordination is noted during this year, development of “best friends,” eyes become fully developed, can write and print, able to understand concepts of past, present and future, playing with gang becomes important,
9 years – gang age: all activities are done with the gang, has secret codes, gang is all boy or all girl, the gang can disband and reform quickly
10 years – improvement in coordination noted, this is the age where the child collects a lot – collecting age, the child at this period is now able to camp away from home, ready for participating in competitive games, prefers to have rules.
11 years – at this time the child is active but is awkward and ungainly, insecure with the members of the opposite sex, repeats off-color jokes
12 years – coordination improves at this point, sense of humor already present at this age, the child is social and cooperative
Adolescent: 13 years old – 18 years old
- Self-esteem changes
- More independent
- Future plans noted
- Coordinated body movements noted
- Sexual maturation
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