- Vitamin needs.
- Vitamin A – Vitamin A supplement. Foods rich in Vitamin A are eggs, carrots, squash, and all green and leafy vegetables.
- Vitamin D – Vitamin D supplement. Foods rich in Vitamin D are fish, liver, eggs, milk. Excess Vitamin D during pregnancy can lead to fetal cardiac problem.
- Vitamin E – sources are green leafy vegetables and fish
- Vitamin B – food sources are same as the foods rich in protein
- Iron – the DRI for iron for pregnant women is 30 mg. Sources: liver and other internal organs, camote tops, kangkong, egg yolk, ampalaya
- Foods to AVOID in pregnancy
- Foods with caffeine
- Artificial sweeteners
- Weight loss diets
- Smoking. Cigarette smoking causes vasoconstriction which leads to low birth weight infants and has been a risk factors for some complications during pregnancy. Thus, it is contraindicated during pregnancy.
- Drugs. Teratogenic drugs can cause congenital defects to the fetus, hence, they are contraindicated unless prescribed by the physician. The following are medications that are contraindicated during pregnancy:
- Thalidomide – can cause Amelia or Phocomelia
- Steroids – can cause cleft palate and abortion
- Iodides – can cause enlargement of the fetal thyroid gland leading to tracheal decompression and dyspnea at birth. Iodides are contained in many OTC cough suppressants.
- Vitamin K – can cause hemolysis and hyperbilirubinemia
- Aspirin and Phenobarbital – can cause bleeding disorders and tendencies
- Streptomycin and Quinine – can cause damage to the 8th cranial nerve
- Tetracycline – can cause staining of tooth enamel and inhibits growth of long bones.
- Sexual Activity. During the first trimester, there is a decrease in sexual desire as the woman is more preoccupied with the changes in her body. However, during the second trimester, there is an improvement in the sexual desire as the woman has already adapted to the growing fetus. During the third trimester, a decrease in sexual desire is noted as the woman is afraid of hurting the fetus.
- Sex in moderation is permitted during pregnancy.
- During the last 6 weeks of pregnancy, sexual activity is not advised as it has been noted that there is increased evidence of postpartum infection on women who engage in sex during the last 6 weeks.
- Sex is contraindicated in the following situations:
- Spotting or bleeding
- Incompetent cervical os
- Ruptured BOW
- Deeply engaged presenting part
Daisy Jane Antipuesto RN MN
Currently a Nursing Local Board Examination Reviewer. Subjects handled are Pediatric, Obstetric and Psychiatric Nursing.
Previous work experiences include: Clinical instructor/lecturer, clinical coordinator (Level II), caregiver instructor/lecturer, NC2 examination reviewer and staff/clinic nurse.
Areas of specialization: Emergency room, Orthopedic Ward and Delivery Room. Also an IELTS passer.
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