The term NURSING PROCESS was first used/mentioned by Lydia Hall, a nursing theorist, in 1955 wherein she introduced 3 STEPs: observation, administration of care and validation.

Since then, nursing process continue to evolve: it used to be a 3-step process, then a 4-step process (APIE), then a 5-step (ADPIE), now a 6-step process (ADOPIE) ASSESSMENT, DIAGNOSIS, OUTCOME IDENTIFICATION, PLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION and EVALUATION.


·is a systematic, organized method of planning, and providing quality and individualized nursing care.

·it is synonymous with the PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH that directs the nurse and the client to determine the need for nursing care, to plan and implement the care and evaluate the result.

·It is a G O S H approach (goal-oriented, organized, systematic and humanistic care) for efficient and effective provision of nursing care.


Goal-oriented – nurse make her objective based on client’s health needs.

Remember: Goals and plan of care should be base according to client’s problems/needs NOT according to your own problem as the nurse.

Organized/Systematic – the nursing process is composed of 6 sequential and interrelated steps and these 6 phases follow a logical sequence.

Humanistic care

  • plan to care is developed and implemented taking into consideration the unique needs of the individual client.
  • plan of care therefore is individualized (no 2 person has the same health needs even with same health condition/illness)
  • in providing care, it involves respect of human dignity

Efficient – plan of case is relevant/related to the needs of the client thereby promoting client satisfaction and progress.

Effective – in planning care, utilized resources wisely (staff, time, money/cost)

Aside from GOSH, other characteristic of Nursing Process

Cyclic and Dynamic in nature – data from each phase provides the input into the next phase so that is becomes a sequence of events (cycle) that are constantly changing (dynamic) base on client’s health status.

Involves skill in Decision-making – nurse makes important decisions related to client care, she choose the best action/steps to meet a desired goal or to solve a problem. She must make decisions whenever several choices or options are available.

Uses Critical Thinking skills – the nurse may encounter new ideas or less-than-routine or non-ordinary situations where decisions must be made using critical thinking.

Purpose of Nursing Process:

  1. To identify a client’s health status; his Actual/Present and potential/possible health problems or needs.
  2. To establish a plan of care to meet identified needs.
  3. To provide nursing interventions to meet those needs.
  4. To provide an individualized, holistic, effective and efficient nursing care.

Steps/Phases of the Nursing Process:

  1. Assessment
  2. Diagnosis
  3. Outcome Identification
  4. Planning
  5. Implementation
  6. Evaluation

by: Mrs. Cubon, RN, MAN

What Do You Think?