Nursing Board Exam Reviewer Part 4 of 5
311. Which of the following statements reflect nursing interventions in the care of the patient with osteoarthritis?
a) Encourage weight loss and an increase in aerobic activity.
Weight loss and an increase in aerobic activity such as walking, with special attention to quadriceps strengthening are important approaches to pain management.
b) Provide an analgesic after exercise.
Patients should be assisted to plan their daily exercise at a time when the pain is least severe, or plan to use an analgesic, if appropriate, prior to their exercise session.
c) Assess for the gastrointestinal complications associated with COX-2 inhibitors.
Gastrointestinal complications, especially GI bleeding, are associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
d) Avoid the use of topical analgesics.
Topical analgesics such as capsaicin and methylsalicylate may be used for pain management.
312. Fibromyalgia is a common condition that
a) involves chronic fatigue, generalized muscle aching and stiffness.
Fibromyalgia, is a common condition that involves chronic fatigue, generalized muscle aching, and stiffness.
b) is caused by a virus.
The cause is unknown and no pathological characteristics have been identified that are specific for the condition
c) is treated by diet, exercise, and physical therapy.
Treatment consists of attention to the specific symptoms reported by the patient. NSAIDs may be used to treat the diffuse muscle aching and stiffness. Tricyclic antidepressants are used to improve or restore normal sleep patterns and individualized programs of exercise are used to decrease muscle weakness and discomfort and to improve the general de-conditioning that occurs in these individuals
d) usually lasts for less than two weeks,
Fibromyalgia, is a common condition that involves chronic fatigue, generalized muscle aching, and stiffness. It is very typical for patients to have endured their symptoms for a long period of time.
313. Which of the following terms refers to a condition characterized by destruction of the melanocytes in circumscribed areas of the skin?
Vitiligo results in the development of white patches that may be localized or widespread.
Hirsutism is the condition of having excessive hair growth.
Lichenification refers to a leathery thickening of the skin.
Telangiectases refers to red marks on the skin caused by stretching of the superficial blood vessels.
314. Of the following types of cells, which are believed to play a significant role in cutaneous immune system reactions?
a) Langerhans’ cells
Langerhans’ cells are common to the epidermis and are accessory cells of the afferent immune system process.
b) Merkel’s cells
Merkel’s cells are the receptor cells in the epidermis that transmit stimuli to the axon via a chemical response.
Melanocytes are special cells of the epidermis that are primarily involved in producing melanin, which colors the hair and skin.
Phagocytes are white blood cells that engulf and destroy foreign materials.
315. When the nurse assesses the patient and observes blue-red and dark brown plaques and nodules, she recognizes that these manifestations are associated with
a) Kaposi’s sarcoma.
Kaposi’s sarcoma is a frequent comorbidity of the patient with AIDS.
b) platelet disorders.
With platelet disorders, the nurse observes ecchymoses (bruising) and purpura (bleeding into the skin).
c) allergic reactions.
Urticaria (wheals or hives) is the manifestation of allergic reactions.
A painless chancre or ulcerated lesion is a typical finding in the patient with syphilis.
316. The nurse reading the physician’s report of an elderly patient’s physical examination knows a notation that the patient demonstrates xanthelasma refers to
a) yellowish waxy deposits on upper eyelids.
The change is a common, benign manifestation of aging skin or it can sometimes signal hyperlipidemia.
b) liver spots.
Solar lentigo is the term that refers to liver spots.
c) dark discoloration of the skin.
Melasma is the term that refers to dark discoloration of the skin.
d) bright red moles.
Cherry angioma is the term that is used to describe a bright red mole.
317. The nurse notes that the patient demonstrates generalized pallor and recognizes that this finding may be indicative of
In the light-skinned individual, generalized pallor is a manifestation of anemia. In brown- and black-skinned individuals, anemia is demonstrated as a dull skin appearance.
Albinism is a condition of total absence of pigment in which the skin appears whitish pink.
Vitiligo is a condition characterized by the destruction of the melanocytes in circumscribed areas of skin, resulting in patchy, milky white spots.
d) local arterial insufficiency.
Local arterial insufficiency is characterized by marked localized pallor.
318. Which of the following terms refers most precisely to a localized skin infection of a single hair follicle?
Furuncles occur anywhere on the body, but are most prevalent in areas subjected to irritation, pressure friction, and excessive perspiration, such as the back of the neck, the axillae, or the buttocks.
A carbuncle is a localized skin infection involving several hair follicles.
Chelitis refers to dry cracking at the corners of the mouth.
Comedones are the primary lesions of acne, caused by sebum blockage in the hair follicle.
319. The nurse recommends which of the following types of therapeutic baths for its antipruritic action?
a) Colloidal (Aveeno, oatmeal)
Aveeno or oatmeal baths are recommended to decrease itching associated with a dermatologic disorder.
b) Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
Baking soda baths are cooling but dangerous. The tub gets very slippery and a bath mat must be used in the tub.
Water baths have the same effect as wet dressings, not known to counteract itching.
Saline baths have the same effects as saline dressings, not known to counteract itching.
320. Which of the following materials consists of a powder in water?
A suspension requires shaking before application, exemplified by calamine lotion.
b) Hygroscopic agent
A hygroscopic agent is a powder that acts to absorb and retain moisture from the air and to reduce friction between surfaces.
A paste is a mixture of powder and ointment.
A linament is a lotion with oil added to prevent crusting.