Nursing Board Exam Reviewer Part 4 of 5

301. When the nurse observes diffuse swelling involving the deeper skin layers in the patient who has experienced an allergic reaction, the nurse records the finding as

a) angioneurotic edema.
The area of skin demonstrating angioneurotic edema may appear normal but often has a reddish hue and does not pit.

b) urticaria.
Urticaria (hives) is characterized as edematous skin elevations that vary in size and shape, itch, and cause local discomfort.

c) contact dermatitis.
Contact dermatitis refers to inflammation of the skin caused by contact with an allergenic substance, such as poison ivy.

d) pitting edema.
Pitting edema is the result of increased interstitial fluid and associated with disorders such as congestive heart failure.

302. Atopic allergic disorders are characterized by

a) a hereditary predisposition.
Atopic allergic disorders are characterized by a hereditary predisposition and production of a local reaction to IgE antibodies produced in response to common environmental allergens.

b) an IgA-mediated reaction.
Atopic and nonatopic allergic disorders are IgE-mediated allergic reactions.

c) production of a systemic reaction.
Atopic allergic disorders are characterized by a hereditary predisposition and production of a local reaction to IgE antibodies produced in response to common environmental allergens.

d) a response to physiologic allergens.
Atopic allergic disorders are characterized by a hereditary predisposition and production of a local reaction to IgE antibodies produced in response to common environmental allergens.

303. The nurse teaches the patient with allergies about anaphylaxis including which of the following statements?

a) The most common cause of anaphylaxis is penicillin.
The most common cause of anaphylaxis, accounting for about 75% of fatal anaphylactic reactions in the U.S., is penicillin.

b) Anaphylactoid (anaphylaxis-like) reactions are commonly fatal.
Although possibly severe, anaphylactoid reactions are rarely fatal.

c) The most common food item causing anaphylaxis is chocolate.
Food items that are common causes of anaphylaxis include peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, fish, milk, eggs, soy and wheat.

d) Systemic reactions include urticaria and angioedema
Local reactions usually involve urticaria and angioedema at the site of the antigen exposure. Systemic reactions occur within about 30 minutes of exposure involving cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and integumentary organ systems.

304. Which of the following statements describes the clinical manifestations of a delayed hypersensitivity (type IV) allergic reaction to latex?

a) Signs and symptoms are localized to the area of exposure, usually the back of the hands.
Clinical manifestations of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction are localized to the area of exposure.

b) Signs and symptoms can be eliminated by changing glove brands or using powder-free gloves.
Clinical manifestations of an irritant contact dermatitis can be eliminated by changing glove brands or using powder-free gloves.

c) Signs and symptoms may worsen when hand lotion is applied before donning latex gloves.
With an irritant contact dermatitis, avoid use of hand lotion before donning gloves as this may worsen symptoms as lotions may leach latex proteins from the gloves.

d) Signs and symptoms occur within minutes after exposure to latex.
Described as a latex allergy, when clinical manifestations occur within minutes after exposure to latex, an immediate hypersensitivity (type I) allergic reaction has occurred.

305. Which of the following terms refers to fixation or immobility of a joint?

a) Ankylosis
Ankylosis may result from disease or scarring due to trauma.

b) Hemarthrosis
Hemarthrosis refers to bleeding into the joint.

c) Diarthrodial
Diarthrodial refers to a joint with two freely moveable parts.

d) Arthroplasty
Arthroplasty refers to replacement of a joint.

306. Accumulation of crystalline depositions in articular surfaces, bones, soft tissue, and cartilage is referred to as

a) tophi.
Tophi, when problematic, are surgically excised.

b) subchondral bone.
Subchondral bone refers to a bony plate that supports the articular cartilage.

c) pannus.
Pannus refers to newly formed synovial tissue infiltrated with inflammatory cells.

d) joint effusion.
Joint effusion refers to the escape of fluid from the blood vessels or lymphatics into the joint cavity.

307. Passive range-of-motion exercises are indicated during which stage of rheumatic disease?

a) Acute
Passive range of motion is indicated because the patient is unable to perform exercises alone during an acute stage of rheumatic disease.

b) Subacute
Active assistive or active range of motion is recommended during the subacute stage of rheumatic diseases.

c) Inactive
Active range of motion and isometrics are recommended during the inactive stage of rheumatic diseases.

d) Remission
Active range of motion and isometrics are recommended during the remission stage of rheumatic diseases.

308. Which of the following connective tissue disorders is characterized by insoluble collagen being formed and accumulating excessively in the tissues?

a) Scleroderma
Scleroderma occurs initially in the skin but also occurs in blood vessels, major organs, and body systems, potentially resulting in death.

b) Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis results from an autoimmune response in the synovial tissue with damage taking place in body joints.

c) Systemic lupus erythematosus
SLE is an immunoregulatory disturbance that results in increased autoantibody production.

d) Polymyalgia rheumatic
In polymyalgia rheumatic, immunoglobulin is deposited in the walls of inflamed temporal arteries.

309. Osteoarthritis is known as a disease that

a) is the most common and frequently disabling of joint disorders.
The functional impact of osteoarthritis on quality of life, especially for elderly patients, is often ignored.

b) affects young males.
Reiter’s syndrome is a spondyloarthropathy that affects young adult males and is characterized primarily by urethritis, arthritis, and conjunctivitis.

c) requires early treatment because most of the damage appears to occur early in the course of the disease.
Psoriatic arthritis, characterized by synovitis, polyarthritis, and spondylitis requires early treatment because of early damage caused by disease.

d) affects the cartilaginous joints of the spine and surrounding tissues.
Ankylosing spondylitis causes the described problem and is usually diagnosed in the second or third decade of life.

310. Which of the following newer pharmacological therapies used for the treatment of osteoarthritis is thought to improve cartilage function and retard degradation as well as have some anti-inflammatory effects?

a) Viscosupplementation
Viscosupplementation, the intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid, is thought to improve cartilage function and retard degradation. It may also have some anti-inflammatory effects.

b) Glucosamine
Glucosamine and chondroitin are thought to improve tissue function and retard breakdown of cartilage.

c) Chondroitin
Chondroitin and glucosamine are thought to improve tissue function and retard breakdown of cartilage.

d) Capsaicin
Capsaicin is a topical analgesic.

What Do You Think?

Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10