Nursing Board Exam Reviewer Part 2 of 5
171. The nurse teaches the patient which of the following guidelines regarding lifestyle modifications for hypertension?
a) Maintain adequate dietary intake of potassium
In general, one serving of a potassium-rich food such as banana, kale, broccoli, or orange juice will meet the daily need for potassium.
b) Reduce smoking to no more than four cigarettes per day
The patient should be guided to stop smoking.
c) Limit aerobic physical activity to 15 minutes, three times per week
The general guideline is to advise the patient to increase aerobic activity to 30 to 45 minutes most days of the week.
d) Stop alcohol intake
In general, alcohol intake should be limited to no more than 1 oz of ethanol per day.
172. Of the following diuretic medications, which conserves potassium?
a) Spironolactone (Aldactone)
Aldactone is known as a potassium-sparing diuretic.
b) Furosemide (Lasix)
Lasix causes loss of potassium from the body.
c) Chlorothiazide (Diuril)
Diuril causes mild hypokalemia.
d) Chlorthalidone (Hygroton)
Hygroton causes mild hypokalemia.
173. Which of the following adrenergic inhibitors acts directly on the blood vessels, producing vasodilation?
a) Prazosin hydrochloride (Minipress)
Minipress is a peripheral vasodilator acting directly on the blood vessel. It is not used in angina and coronary artery disease, however, because it induces tachycardia if not preceded by administration of propranolol and a diuretic.
b) Reserpine (Serpasil)
Serpasil impairs synthesis and reuptake of norepinephrine.
c) Propranolol (Inderal)
Inderal blocks the beta-adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system, especially the sympathetics to the heart, producing a slower heart reate and lowered blood pressure.
d) Clonidine hydrochloride (Catapres)
Catapres acts through the central nervous system, apparently through centrally mediated alpha-adrenergic stimulation in the brain, producing blood pressure reduction.
174. Which of the following terms refers to an abnormal decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets?
Pancytopenia may be congenital or acquired.
Anemia refers to decreased red cell mass.
Leukopenia refers to a less-than-normal amount of WBCs in circulation.
Thrombocytopenia refers to a lower-than-normal platelet count.
175. Which of the following terms refers to a form of white blood cell involved in immune response?
Both B and T lymphocytes respond to exposure to antigens.
Granulocytes include basophils, neutrophils, and eosinophils.
A spherocyte is a red blood cell without central pallor, seen with hemolysis.
A thombocyte is a platelet.
176. The term that is used to refer to a primitive cell, capable of self-replication and differentiation, is
a) stem cell.
Stem cells may differentiate into myeloid or lymphoid stem cells.
b) band cell.
A band cell is a slightly immature neutrophil.
A spherocyte is a red blood cell without central pallor.
A reticulocyte is a slightly immature red blood cell.
177. Of the following hemolytic anemias, which is categorized as inherited?
a) Sickle cell anemia
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an inherited abnormality resulting in hemolytic anemia.
b) Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is an acquired anemia.
c) Cold agglutinin disease
Cold agglutinin disease is an acquired anemia.
Hypersplenism results in an acquired hemolytic anemia.
178. The antidote to heparin is
a) protamine sulfate.
Protamine sulfate, in the appropriate dosage, acts quickly to reverse the effects of heparin.
b) vitamin K.
Vitamin K is the antidote to warfarin (Coumadin).
Narcan is the drug used to reverse signs and symptoms of medication-induced narcosis.
Ipecac is an emetic used to treat some poisonings.
179. Which of the following terms describes a gastric secretion that combines with vitamin B-12 so that it can be absorbed?
a) Intrinsic factor
Lack of intrinsic factor is a common finding in the aged patient.
Amylase is an enzyme that aids in the digestion of starch.
Pepsin is a gastric enzyme important in protein digestion.
Trypsin is an enzyme that aids in the digestion of protein.
180. When bowel sounds are heard about every 15 seconds, the nurse would record that the bowel sounds are
Normal bowel sounds are heard every 5-20 seconds.
Hypoactive bowel sounds is the description given to auscultation of one to two bowel sounds in 2 minutes.
Sluggish is not a term a nurse would use to accurately describe bowel sounds.
The nurse records that bowel sounds are absent when no sound is heard in 3-5 minutes.