Nursing Board Exam Reviewer Part 2 of 5

101. In relation to the structure of the larynx, the cricoid cartilage is

a) the only complete cartilaginous ring in the larynx.
The cricoid cartilage is located below the thyroid cartilage.

b) used in vocal cord movement with the thyroid cartilage.
The arytenoid cartilages are used in vocal cord movement with the thyroid cartilage.

c) the largest of the cartilage structures.
The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the cartilage structures; part of it forms the Adam’s apple.

d) the valve flap of cartilage that covers the opening to the larynx during swallowing.
The epiglottis is the valve flap of cartilage that covers the opening to the larynx during swallowing.

102. Which respiratory volume is the maximum volume of air that can be inhaled after maximal expiration?

a) Inspiratory reserve volume
Inspiratory reserve volume is normally 3000 mL.

b) Tidal volume
Tidal volume is the volume of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath.

c) Expiratory reserve volume
Expiratory reserve volume is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled forcibly after a normal exhalation.

d) Residual volume
Residual volume is the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum exhalation.

103. The individual who demonstrates displacement of the sternum is described as having a

a) pigeon chest.
Pigeon chest may occur with rickets, Marfan’s syndrome, or severe kyphoscoliosis.

b) barrel chest.
A barrel chest is seen in patients with emphysema as a result of over-inflation of the lungs.

c) funnel chest.
A funnel chest occurs when there is a depression in the lower portion of the sternum.

d) kyphoscoliosis.
Kyphoscoliosis is characterized by elevation of the scapula and a corresponding S-shaped spine.

104. When the nurse auscultates chest sounds that are harsh and cracking, sounding like two pieces of leather being rubbed together, she records her finding as

a) pleural friction rub.
A pleural friction rub is heard secondary to inflammation and loss of lubricating pleural fluid.

b) crackles.
Crackles are soft, high-pitched, discontinuous popping sounds that occur during inspiration.

c) sonorous wheezes.
Sonorous wheezes are deep, low-pitched rumbling sounds heard primarily during expiration.

d) sibilant wheezes.
Sibilant wheezes are continuous, musical, high-pitched, whistle-like sounds heard during inspiration and expiration.

105. Which of the following terms is used to describe hemorrhage from the nose?

a) Epistaxis
Epistaxis is due to rupture of tiny, distended vessels in the mucous membrane of any area of the nose.

b) Xerostomia
Xerostomia refers to dryness of the mouth.

c) Rhinorrhea
Rhinorrhea refers to drainage of a large amount of fluid from the nose.

d) Dysphagia
Dysphagia refers to difficulties in swallowing.

106. The herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), which produces a cold sore (fever blister), has an incubation period of

a) 2-12 days.
HSV-1 is transmitted primarily by direct contact with infected secretions.

b) 0-3 months.
The time period 0-3 months exceeds the incubation period.

c) 20-30 days.
The time period 20-30 days exceeds the incubation period.

d) 3-6 months.
The time period 3-6 months exceeds the incubation period.

107. Another term for clergyman’s sore throat is

a) chronic granular pharyngitis.
In clergyman’s sore throat, the pharynx is characterized by numerous swollen lymph follicles.

b) aphonia.
Aphonia refers to the inability to use one’s voice.

c) atrophic pharyngitis.
Atrophic pharyngitis is characterized by a membrane that is thin, white, glistening, and at times wrinkled.

d) hypertrophic pharyngitis.
Hypertrophic pharyngitis is characterized by general thickening and congestion of the pharyngeal mucous membrane.

108. Which type of sleep apnea is characterized by lack of airflow due to pharyngeal occlusion?

a) Obstructive
Obstructive sleep apnea occurs usually in men, especially those who are older and overweight.

b) Simple
Types of sleep apnea do not include a simple characterization.

c) Mixed
Mixed sleep apnea is a combination of central and obstructive apnea with one apneic episode.

d) Central
In central sleep apnea, the patient demonstrates simultaneous cessation of both airflow and respiratory movements.

109. When the patient who has undergone laryngectomy suffers wound breakdown, the nurse monitors him very carefully because he is identified as being at high risk for

a) carotid artery hemorrhage.
The carotid artery lies close to the stoma and may rupture from erosion if the wound does not heal properly.

b) pulmonary embolism.
Pulmonary embolism is associated with immobility.

c) dehydration.
Dehydration may lead to poor wound healing and breakdown.

d) pneumonia.
Pneumonia is a risk for any postoperative patient.

110. Which of the following terms refers to lung tissue that has become more solid in nature due to a collapse of alveoli or infectious process?

a) Consolidation
Consolidation occurs during an infectious process such as pneumonia.

b) Atelectasis
Atelectasis refers to collapse or airless condition of the alveoli caused by hypoventilation, obstruction to the airways, or compression.

c) Bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis refers to chronic dilation of a bronchi or bronchi in which the dilated airway becomes saccular and a medium for chronic infection.

d) Empyema
Empyema refers to accumulation of purulent material in the pleural space.

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