Nursing Board Exam Reviewer Part 1 of 5
61. Which of the following principles or guidelines accurately informs the nurse regarding placebos?
a) Placebos should never be used to test the person’s truthfulness about pain.
Perception of pain is highly individualized.
b) A placebo effect is an indication that the person does not have pain.
A placebo effect is a true physiologic response.
c) A placebo should be used as the first line of treatment for the patient.
A placebo should never be used as a first line of treatment.
d) A positive response to a placebo indicates that the person’s pain is not real.
Reduction in pain as a response to placebo should never be interpreted as an indication that the person’s pain is not real.
62. Regarding tolerance and addiction, the nurse understands that
a) although patients may need increasing levels of opioids, they are not addicted.
Physical tolerance usually occurs in the absence of addiction.
b) tolerance to opioids is uncommon.
Tolerance to opioids is common.
c) addiction to opioids commonly develops.
Addiction to opioids is rare.
d) the nurse must be primarily concerned about development of addiction by the patient in pain.
Addiction is rare and should never be the primary concern for a patient in pain.
63. The preferred route of administration of medication in the most acute care situations is which of the following routes?
The IV route is the preferred parenteral route in most acute care situations because it is much more comfortable for the patient, and peak serum levels and pain relief occur more rapidly and reliably.
Epidural administration is used to control postoperative and chronic pain.
Subcutaneous administration results in slow absorption of medication.
Intramuscular administration of medication is absorbed more slowly than intravenously administered medication.
64. Mu opioids have which of the following effects on respiratory rate:
a) Stimulation, then depression
Mu opioids also cause bradycardia, hypothermia, and constipation.
b) No change
Kappa opioids result in no change in respiratory rate.
c) Stimulation, only
Delta opioids result in stimulation of respiratory rate.
d) Depression, only
Neither mu, nor kappa, nor delta opoids depress respiratory rate as its only effect upon respiratory rate.
65. Which of the following electrolytes is a major cation in body fluid?
Potassium is a major cation that affects cardiac muscle functioning.
Chloride is an anion.
Bicarbonate is an anion.
Phosphate is an anion.
66. Which of the following electrolytes is a major anion in body fluid?
Chloride is a major anion found in extracellular fluid.
Potassium is a cation.
Sodium is a cation.
Calcium is a cation.
67. Oncotic pressure refers to
a) the osmotic pressure exerted by proteins.
Oncotic pressure is a pulling pressure exerted by proteins, such as albumin.
b) the number of dissolved particles contained in a unit of fluid.
Osmolality refers to the number of dissolved particles contained in a unit of fluid.
c) the excretion of substances such as glucose through increased urine output.
Osmotic diuresis occurs when the urine output increases due to excretion of substances such as glucose.
d) the amount of pressure needed to stop flow of water by osmosis.
Osmotic pressure is the amount of pressure needed to stop the flow of water by osmosis.
68. Which of the following solutions is hypotonic?
a) 0.45% NaCl.
Half-strength saline is hypotonic
b) Lactated Ringer’s solution.
Lactated Ringer’s is isotonic.
c) 0.9% NaCl.
Normal saline (0.9% NaCl) is isotonic.
d) 5% NaCl.
A solution that is 5% NaCl is hypertonic.
69. The normal serum value for potassium is
a) 3.5-5.5 mEq/L.
Serum potassium must be within normal limits to prevent cardiac dysrhythmias.
b) 135-145 mEq/L.
Normal serum sodium is 135-145 mEq/L.
c) 96-106 mEq/L.
Normal serum chloride is 96-106 mEq/L.
d) 8.5-10.5 mg/dL.
Normal total serum calcium is 8.5-10.5mg/dL.
70. In which type of shock does the patient experiences a mismatch of blood flow to the cells?
Distributive or vasogenic shock results from displacement of blood volume, creating a relative hypovolemia.
Cardiogenic shock results from the failure of a heart as a pump.
In hypovolemic shock, there is a decrease in the intravascular volume.
In septic shock, overwhelming infection results in a relative hypovolemia.