Nursing Board Exam Reviewer Part 1 of 5
21. Of the following areas for assessing the patient profile, which should be addressed after the others?
a) Body image
The patient is often less anxious when the interview progresses from information that is less personal to information that is more personal.
Educational level is relatively impersonal and readily revealed by the patient.
Occupation is relatively impersonal and readily revealed by the patient.
Housing, religion, and language are relatively impersonal and readily revealed by the patient.
22. Which of the following methods of physical examination refers to the translation of physical force into sound?
Percussion translates the application of physical force into sound.
Palpation refers to examination by non-forceful touching.
Auscultation refers to the skill of listening to sounds produced within the body created by movement of air or fluid.
Manipulation refers to the use of the hands to determine motion of a body part.
23. In which range of body mass index (BMI) are patients considered to have increased risk for problems associated with poor nutritional status?
a) Below 24
Additionally, higher mortality rates in hospitalized patients and community-dwelling elderly are associated with individuals who have low BMI.
Those who have a BMI of 25 to 29 are considered overweight.
c) 30 to 39
Those who have BMI of 30-39 are considered obese.
d) Over 40
Those who have BMI over 40 are considered extremely obese.
24. To calculate the ideal body weight for a woman, the nurse allows
a) 100 pounds for 5 feet of height.
To calculate the ideal body weight of a woman, the nurse allows 100 pounds for 5 feet of height and adds 5 pounds for each additional inch over 5 feet
b) 106 pounds for 5 feet of height.
The nurse allows 106 pounds for 5 feet of height in calculating the ideal body weight for a man.
c) 6 pounds for each additional inch over 5 feet.
The nurse adds 6 pounds for each additional inch over 5 feet in calculating the ideal body weight for a man.
d) 80 pounds for 5 feet of height.
Eighty pounds for 5 feet of height is too little.
25. A steady state within the body is termed
When a change occurs that causes a body function to deviate from its stable range, processes are initiated to restore and maintain the steady state or homeostasis.
Constancy refers to the balanced internal state of the human body maintained by physiologic and biochemical processes.
Adaptation refers to a constant, ongoing process that requires change in structure, function, or behavior so that the person is better suited to the environment.
Stress refers to a state produced by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening, or damaging to the person’s dynamic balance or equilibrium.
26. Which of the following terms, according to Lazarus, refers to the process through which an event is evaluated with respect to what is at stake and what might and can be done?
a) Cognitive appraisal
The outcome of cognitive appraisal is identification of the situation as either stressful or non-stressful.
Coping consists of both cognitive and behavioral efforts made to manage the specific external or internal demand that taxes a person’s resources.
Hardiness is a personality characteristic that is composed of control, commitment, and challenge.
Lazarus believed adaptation was affected by emotion that subsumed stress and coping.
27. An increase in the number of new cells in an organ or tissue that is reversible when the stimulus for production of new cells is removed is termed
Hyperplasia occurs as cells multiply and are subjected to increased stimulation resulting in tissue mass enlargement.
Hypertrophy is an increase in size and bulk of tissue that does not result from an increased number of cells.
Atrophy refers to reduction in size of a structure after having come to full maturity.
With neoplasia, the increase in the number of new cells in an organ or tissue continues after the stimulus is removed.
28. Which of the following types of cells have a latent ability to regenerate?
Stable cells have a latent ability to regenerate if they are damaged or destroyed and are found in the kidney, liver, and pancreas, among other body organs.
Labile cells multiply constantly to replace cells worn out by normal physiologic processes.
Permanent cells include neurons — the nerve cell bodies, not their axons. Destruction of a neuron causes permanent loss, but axons may regenerate.
Epithelial cells are a type of labile cell that multiply constantly to replace cells worn out by normal physiologic processes.
29. The relaxation techniques of progressive muscle relaxation, relaxation with guided imagery, and the Benson Relaxation Response share which of the following elements?
a) A mental device (something on which to focus the attention)
Similar elements also include a quiet environment, a comfortable position, and a passive attitude.
b) Nutritional foundation
Relaxation techniques do not encompass specific nutritional guidelines.
c) Analgesic preparation
Relaxation techniques are used to reduce one’s response to stress and do not require analgesia prior to practicing the techniques.
d) Physician’s order
A physician’s order is not required to assist an individual to learn techniques to reduce one’s response to stress.
30. Which of the following terms has been defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a group of behavioral or psychological symptoms or a pattern that manifests itself in significant distress, impaired functioning, or accentuated risk of enduring severe suffering or possible death?
a) Mental disorder
The definition was adopted by the American Psychiatric Association in 1994.
b) Emotional disorder
There is no universally accepted definition of what constitutes an emotional disorder.
Anxiety is defined as fear of the unknown.
Schizophrenia is a specific disorder characterized by psychosis.