Genus Neisseria has a specie called Neisseria gonorhea or commonly called Gonococcus. It has a gram negative, kidney or bean shaped intracellular diplococcic. This is usually killed when outside of the human body. It is transmitted through sexual intercourse, with an infected partner via infected birth canal of infected mother during delivery; indirectly transmitted via contaminated hands, fomites contaminated with purulent discharges; directly also via oral sex.
Gonorrhea originated from the two Greek words: “gono” meaning semen and “rhein” which means flow. It is an acute, inflammatory and infectious disease o the mucus membrane of the genitor-urinary tracts of men and women as well as the eyes of the newborn due to N. Gonorrhoea. Its incubation period usually is 3-5 days after the contact with an infected partner.
Asymptomatic gonococcal infection in women most frequently involves the endocervix. In decreasing order of occurrence, the urethra, anal canal, and the pharynx also can be infected. Extension of the disease to the fallopian tubes usually is accompanied by the signs and symptoms of acute salpingitis.
- Ophthalmia Neonatorum – an infection of the conjunctiva of the eye affecting the newborn babies during passage through an infected birth canal.
- Gonorrheal Ophthalmia – an acute painful inflammatory infection of the eyes which results when the gonococci are rubbed by the contaminated hands and to the eyes.
- Gonorrheal Vulvovaginitis – Occurs only among pre-pubertal girls when the vagina is lined with softer extremely susceptible epithelium to cornified stratified squamous type resistant to gonococci at puberty usually eliminates a childhood infection. This is the usual result in cases of rape.
- Gonococcal Pharyngitis – This is the result of the direct contact by oral sex of the infecting organism with the pharynx or their transmission to the oral cavity from infection elsewhere in the body.
- Anal Gonorrhea – an infection of the anus when the infecting organism is introduced through anal sex. Anorectal gonorrhoea has been reported to be 28 to 55% of the cases common among homnosexual males attending STD clinics.
Signs and Symptoms:
- Dysuria/ Urethral discharge
- Prostatitis/inguinal lymphadenitis
- Pelvic pain
Complication: Postgonococcal urethritis
- Microscopic examination of Gram stained urethral or conjunctival smear and finding the characteristic gram (-), coffee/kidney-shaped, intracellular diplococcic.
- Endocervical, anal or urethral culture of pus and mucus on selective culture medium.
- For colony identification for oxidase test.
- Penicillin G inhibits the cell wall synthesis and it is the drug of choice.
- Triple sulphonamides is bacteriostatic.
- Tetracyclines inhibits protein synthesis