Neurointensive Care for Traumatic Brain Injury in Children
Traumatic brain injury have taken the interest of international organizations nowadays. As it is a very dangerous injury, it can even impair the lives of those who had a traumatic brain injury. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, prevention and sources of help is very an important aspect on understanding and managing such injury.
Traumatic brain injury occurs when a bump can be severe enough to affect the normal function of the brain. Neurologic deficits can then be seen and some of the deficits could not be altered anymore. With the irreversible damage it can bring, prevention is the key.
An elevated blood pressure and increased intracranial pressure are the presenting signs after a traumatic brain injury. A natural way for a body to compensate with the increasing pressures inside the body is to evacuate it through projectile vomiting. The conscious state also being affected by the increasing intracranial pressure.
Management of traumatic brain injury includes neuro-vital signs. The main purpose of this management is to prevent the progress of the first brain injury. The secondary effects of the primary brain injury are also minimized during the course of management.
- Patent airway must be done and other resuscitative measures must be observed.
- Maintaining the integrity of the spinal cord must be done in order to prevent problems with the pathways.
- The elevation of the head must only be no less than 30º
- Endotracheal intubation is also opted when the respiratory center is also affected.
- Introduction of pain medications are also done in order to minimize pain being felt as well as prevent elevation of the blood pressure
- Using a modified glascow coma scale, orientation of the patient is well monitored. While the blood pressure gives an idea of the height of the intracranial pressure is well monitored in the intensive care unit.
- Bedside care must also be done especially for a child with a problem with elimination.
- Skin care and keeping its integrity must be done since the child might be on bed for long periods of time.
- In order to prevent compartment syndrome, the nurse and a therapist works hand in hand to rehabilitate the extremities of the child.
- Seizure precautions are also employed. The padded tongue depressor and a single dose of diazepam are placed on the bedside for easier access for health care providers.
- Since traumatic brain injuries in pediatric patients are still on top of the interest of many health care professionals, proper monitoring must be done.