Dengue Fever Case Study
Review of Systems
Being the eldest among six children, she considers herself as an active individual who is fond of interacting with other people. She considers herself as friendly even at home and at work.
Her elimination pattern has somehow deviated from her usual urine and stool elimination. Before her confinement, she usually urinates for 7 times a day and defecates at least 2 times per day. During her confinement, she now urinates 5 times a day and defecates 3 times a day. According to her the variation from her elimination pattern is due to change in appetite and setting.
Rest & Activity
A typical day to her would be waking up at around 3:00 am to do her responsibilities such as cleaning the house and attending to her boss’ business. She had no time take naps in the afternoon but rather sleeps at around 11 o’clock in the evening. During her confinement, she was able to rest and have enough sleep as well. During her leisure time before confinement, she usually reads magazines and newspaper to get updated with the current events. She is not allowed to go out and have her day off on Sundays because her bosses are always busy and usually does not stay home.
She usually stays home during her stay with her boss’ house. There is no physical threat for her safety. Unfortunately, the vector-borne disease affected her and almost cost her life.
According to her, before and during her confinement she had no difficulty in breathing and ventilation.
According to her, she eats moderately. She often eats fish and vegetables, she only eats meat every once a week. She admits that she drinks plenty of water and gets herself well-hydrated.
VIEW LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
MEDICAL & SURGICAL MANAGEMENT
Dengue fever can be diagnosed by doing two blood tests, 2 to 3 weeks apart. The tests can show whether a sample of your blood contains antibodies to the virus. In epidemics, a health care provider often can diagnose dengue by typical signs and symptoms.
There is no specific treatment for classic dengue fever, and like most people you will recover completely within 2 weeks. To help with recovery, health care experts recommend
- Getting plenty of bed rest
- Drinking lots of fluids
- Taking medicine to reduce fever
Often health care provider advises people with dengue fever not to take aspirin. Acetaminophen or other over-the-counter pain-reducing medicines are safe for most people. For severe dengue symptoms, including shock and coma, early and aggressive emergency treatment with fluid and electrolyte replacement can be lifesaving.
The best way to prevent dengue fever is to take special precautions to avoid contact with mosquitoes. Several dengue vaccines are being developed, but none is likely to be licensed by the Food and Drug Administration in the next few years.
When outdoors in an area where dengue fever has been found
- Use a mosquito repellant containing DEET, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus
- Dress in protective clothing-long-sleeved shirts, long pants, socks, and shoes
Because Aedes mosquitoes usually bite during the day, be sure to use precautions especially during early morning hours before daybreak and in the late afternoon before dark.
Other precautions include
- Keeping unscreened windows and doors closed
- Keeping window and door screens repaired
- Getting rid of areas where mosquitoes breed, such as standing water in flower pots, containers, birdbaths, discarded tires, etc.
Most people who develop dengue fever recover completely within 2 weeks. Some, however, may go through several weeks to months of feeling tired and/or depressed. Scientists supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) are trying various approaches to develop vaccines against dengue. Researchers in NIAID laboratories in Bethesda, Maryland, are using weakened and harmless versions of dengue viruses as potential vaccine candidates against dengue and related viruses. Other NIAID-funded investigators are trying to develop dengue virus vaccines using recombinant proteins (with or without adjuvants), viral vectors, and DNA. Several projects are currently ongoing to identify the host and viral factors that determine the virulence and transmissibility of different dengue virus strains. Other researchers supported by NIAID are investigating ways to treat infected individuals and to prevent dengue viruses from reproducing inside mosquitoes.
Although dengue virus has emerged as a growing global threat, scientists know little about how the virus infects cells and causes disease. New research is beginning to shed light on how the virus interacts with humans-how it damages cells and how the human immune system responds to dengue virus invasion.