Cluster A Personality Disorders
Personality Disorders are characterized by inflexible and maladaptive personality traits that significantly interfere in how a person perform, behave or act within the society.
A personality disorder is diagnosed when a person exhibits deviation on the following areas:
- Cognition – ways a person interprets and perceives him or herself, other people and events.
- Affect – ranges, lability and appropriateness of emotional response
- Impulse control – ability to control impulses or express behavior at the appropriate time and place.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) categorizes personality disorders into clusters based on the major or identifying symptom.
CLUSTER A: people with odd and eccentric behavior.
CLUSTER B: people who are dramatic, emotional and erratic.
CLUSTER C: people who appear anxious and fearful.
Cluster A: Personality Disorders
- Paranoid Personality disorder
People with a paranoid personality disorder are characterized by an overly suspicious and mistrustful behavior.
- Aloof and withdrawn
- Appear guarded and hypervigilant
- Have a restricted affect
- Unable to demonstrate a warm and empathetic emotional responses
- Shows constant mistrust and suspicion
- Frequently see malevolence in the actions when none exists
- Spends disproportionate time examining and analyzing the behavior and motive of others to discover hidden and threatening meanings
- Often feel attacked by others
- Devises plans or fantasies for protection
- Uses the defense mechanism of projection (blaming other people, institution or events for their own difficulties)
- Schizoid Personality Disorder
People who are showing a pervasive pattern of social relationship detachment and a limited range of emotional expression in the interpersonal settings falls under this type of personality disorder.
- Displays restricted affect
- Shows little emotion
- Aloof, emotionally cold and uncaring
- Have rich and extensive fantasy life
- Accomplished intellectually and often involved with computers or electronics in hobbies or job
- Spends long hours solving puzzles and mathematical problems
- Lacks future goals or direction
- Impaired insight
- Self-absorbed and loners
- Lacks desire for involvement with others
- No disordered or delusional thought processes present
- Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Schizoid and schizotypal personality disorder are both characterized by pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits, however, the latter is noted with cognitive and perceptual distortions and behavioral eccentricities.
- Odd appearance (stained or dirty clothes, unkempt and disheveled)
- Wander aimlessly
- Loose, bizarre or vague speech
- Restricted range of emotions
- Ideas or reference and magical thinking is noted
- Expresses ideas of suspicions regarding the motives of others
- Experiences anxiety with people