Models of Health
Medical Model (M.B. Belloc & L. Breslo, 1972)
- Health is the state of being free of signs or symptoms of disease. Illness is the presence of signs or symptoms of disease.
Health – Illness Continuum (McCann/Flynn & Heffron, 1984)
- Health is a constantly changing state, with high level wellness and death being on opposite ends of a graduated scale or continuum.
Role – Performance Model (Parsons, 1958)
- Health is the ability to perform all those roles from which one has been socialized.
High – Level Wellness (Dunn, 1961)
- High-level wellness refers to functioning to one’s maximum potential while maintaining balance and purposeful direction in the environment.
World Health Organization Definition (WHO, 1947)
- Health is the state of complete physical, mental, social well-being and not merely the absence of disease.
Needs – Fulfillment Model
- Health is state in which needs are being sufficiently met to allow an individual to function successfully in life with the ability to achieve the highest possible potential.