The sixth most common cancer occurring in the United States is located in the bladder. Over the past years, the incidence of ladder cancer has steadily increased while medical breakthrough on the treatment is still subject to further studies. This condition has been linked to cigarette smoking and other chemical substances in workplace. About 50% of bladder cancer cases were cause by cigarette smoking alone in the US.
Symptoms of bladder cancer include the following:
- Hematuria or presence of blood in the urine
- Frequent and painful urination
Medical history and thorough physical examination is important to diagnose this condition. Cystocopy, the visualization of the bladder, can also be done. Tumor removal and chemotherapy are among the most common treatment for this disease.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
The prostatic area of the bladder carries urine to be excreted out of the body. As man ages the prostate enlarges. This might cause frequent or painful urination. This is a common urological condition among men aging 50-80 years old. However, the cause of the enlargement is non-cancerous.
Physical manifestations of BPH include pain or burning sensation when urinating and presence of blood in urine. A licensed urologist can evaluate the condition through physical examination. Urinalysis is also necessary. To visualize the urethra and bladder, cystocopy is performed. Medicines may be given to manage the condition. Other treatment options may be discussed with the urologist.
Neohrolithiasis is the presence of stones which are formed from the crystallization of excess waste in the kidney. This condition affects approximately 10% of the population in the United States. When gender is compared, frequency is quite higher in men. Physical manifestations include painful urination, hematuria and episodes of urinary tract infection. Pain in the back and groin is also observed in clients diagnosed with this condition.
In the early course of the disease, the client usually notices no physical symptoms. To avoid the formation of stones, water intake should be sufficient to keep the body and kidneys well-hydrated. Sadly, around 50% of clients form another kidney stone within 10 years. Hence, follow-up and regular check-up is essential. Evaluation for reoccurrence of the disease requires blood tests, sonogram and urinalysis.
A number of options are available for the treatment however, the choice depends on the degree of condition and the client. The choices can be made from the list:
- Extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
- Urethral Stent
- Percutaneous nephrolithotomy
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