by: one of our best professor in NCM (Mrs. Cubon, RN, MAN)
The term NURSING PROCESS was first used/mentioned by Lydia Hall, a nursing theorist, in 1955 wherein she introduced 3 STEPs: observation, administration of care and validation.
Since then, nursing process continue to evolve: it used to be a 3-step process, then a 4-step process (APIE), then a 5-step (ADPIE), now a 6-step process (ADOPIE) ASSESSMENT, DIAGNOSIS, OUTCOME IDENTIFICATION, PLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION and EVALUATION.
· is a systematic, organized method of planning, and providing quality and individualized nursing care.
· it is synonymous with the PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH that directs the nurse and the client to determine the need for nursing care, to plan and implement the care and evaluate the result.
· It is a G O S H approach (goal-oriented, organized, systematic and humanistic care) for efficient and effective provision of nursing care.
Goal-oriented – nurse make her objective based on client’s health needs.
Remember: Goals and plan of care should be base according to client’s problems/needs NOT according to your own problem as the nurse.
Organized/Systematic – the nursing process is composed of 6 sequential and interrelated steps and these 6 phases follow a logical sequence.
- plan to care is developed and implemented taking into consideration the unique needs of the individual client.
- plan of care therefore is individualized (no 2 person has the same health needs even with same health condition/illness)
- in providing care, it involves respect of human dignity
Efficient – plan of case is relevant/related to the needs of the client thereby promoting client satisfaction and progress.
Effective – in planning care, utilized resources wisely (staff, time, money/cost)
Aside from GOSH, other characteristic of Nursing Process
Cyclic and Dynamic in nature – data from each phase provides the input into the next phase so that is becomes a sequence of events (cycle) that are constantly changing (dynamic) base on client’s health status.
Involves skill in Decision-making – nurse makes important decisions related to client care, she choose the best action/steps to meet a desired goal or to solve a problem. She must make decisions whenever several choices or options are available.
Uses Critical Thinking skills – the nurse may encounter new ideas or less-than-routine or non-ordinary situations where decisions must be made using critical thinking.
Purpose of Nursing Process:
- To identify a client’s health status; his Actual/Present and potential/possible health problems or needs.
- To establish a plan of care to meet identified needs.
- To provide nursing interventions to meet those needs.
- To provide an individualized, holistic, effective and efficient nursing care.
Steps/Phases of the Nursing Process: