Nursing Care Plan – Pneumonia
Pneumonia is an acute inflammatory disorder of lung parenchyma that results in edema of lung tissues and movement of fluid into the alveoli. These impair gas exchange resulting in hypoxemia. Pneumonia can be classified in several ways. Based on microbiologic etiology, it may be viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal, myobacterial, mycoplasmal, or rickettsial in origin. Based on location, pneumonia may be classified as bronchopneumonia, lobular pneumonia, or lobar pneumonia. Bronchopneumonia involves distal airways and alveoli; lobular pneumonia, part of the lobe; and labor pneumonia, the whole lobe.
Pneumonia occurs in both sexes and at all ages, but older adults run a greater risk of developing it because their weakened chest musculature reduces their ability to clear secretions. Bacterial pneumonia is the most common type of pneumonia found in older adults; viral pneumonia is the second most common type. Aspiration pneumonia occurs in older adults due to impaired swallowing ability and diminished gag reflex. These changes can occur after a stroke or any prolonged illness.