Nursing Care Plan – Dengue Fever
Dengue fever can be caused by any one of four types of dengue virus: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. You can be infected by at least two, if not all four types at different times during your lifetime, but only once by the same type.
You can get dengue virus infections from the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they bite infected humans, and later transmit infection to other people they bite. Two main species of mosquito, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, have been responsible for all cases of dengue transmitted in this country. Dengue is not contagious from person to person.
Symptoms of typical uncomplicated (classic) dengue usually start with fever within 5 to 6 days after you have been bitten by an infected mosquito and include:
- High fever, up to 105 degrees Fahrenheit
- Severe headache
- Retro-orbital (behind the eye) pain
- Severe joint and muscle pain
- Nausea and vomiting
The rash may appear over most of your body 3 to 4 days after the fever begins. You may get a second rash later in the disease. Symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever include all of the symptoms of classic dengue plus
- Marked damage to blood and lymph vessels
- Bleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin, causing purplish bruises
This form of dengue disease can cause death.
Symptoms of dengue shock syndrome-the most severe form of dengue disease-include all of the symptoms of classic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, plus
- Fluids leaking outside of blood vessels
- Massive bleeding
- Shock (very low blood pressure)
This form of the disease usually occurs in children (sometimes adults) experiencing their second dengue infection. It is sometimes fatal, especially in children and young adults.