Salbutamol Drug Study
January 13, 2011 · Leave a Comment
Generic Name: Albuterol
Brand Name: Salbutamol, Proventil, Ventolin, Accuneb, airet, Novo-Salbutamol, Proventil HFA, Gen-salbutamol, Ventodisk, Ventolin HFA, Volmax, VoSpira ER
Classification: Bronchodilator (therapeutic); adrenergics (pharmacologic)
- To control and prevent reversible airway obstruction caused by asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD)
- Quick relief for bronchospasm
- For the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm
- Long-term control agent for patients with chronic or persistent bronchospasm
Mechanism of Action
It relieves nasal congestion and reversible bronchospasm by relaxing the smooth muscles of the bronchioles. The relief from nasal congestion and bronchospasm is made possible by the following mechanism that takes place when Salbutamol is administered.
- First, it binds to the beta2-adrenergic receptors in the airway of the smooth muscle which then leads to the activation of the adenyl cyclase and increased levels of cyclic- 3’5’-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
- When cAMP increases, kinases are activated.
- Kinases inhibit the phosphorylation of myosin and decrease intracellular calcium.
- Decreased in intracellular calcium will result to the relaxation of the smooth muscle airways.
- Hypersensitivity to adrenergic amines
- Hypersensitivity to fluorocarbons
- Cardiac disease including coronary insufficiency, a history of stroke, coronary artery disease and cardiac arrhythmias
- Geriatric patients – older individuals are at higher risk for adverse reactions and may require lower dosage
- Pregnancy especially near term
- Children less than 2 years of age because safety of its use has not been established
- Excess inhaler use which may lead to tolerance and paradoxical bronchospasm
Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
- Chest pain
- Nausea and vomiting
Route and Dosage
PO (Adults and Children more than 12 years): 2-4 mg 3-4 times a day or 4-8 mg of extended dose tablets twice a day.
PO (Geriatric Patients): initial dose should not exceed 2 mg 3-4 times a day and may be increased carefully up to 32 mg/day
PO (Children 6-12 years old): 2 mg 3-4 times a day or 4 mg as extended-release tablets twice a day; may be carefully increased as needed but not to exceed 24 mg/day
PO (Children 2-6 years old): 0.1 mg/kg 3 times a day
Inhalation (Adults and children more than 4 years of age): 2 inhalations every 4-6 hours
Inhalation (Children 2-12 years old): 0.1-0.15 mg/kg/dose 3-4 times a day
- Assess lung sounds, PR and BP before drug administration and during peak of medication.
- Observe fore paradoxical spasm and withhold medication and notify physician if condition occurs.
- Administer PO medications with meals to minimize gastric irritation.
- Extended-release tablet should be swallowed-whole. It should not be crushed or chewed.
- If administering medication through inhalation, allow at least 1 minute between inhalation of aerosol medication.
- Advise the patient to rinse mouth with water after each inhalation to minimize dry mouth.
- Inform the patient that Albuterol may cause an unusual or bad taste.