Category: Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology of Myocardial Infarction 24

Pathophysiology of Myocardial Infarction

Pathophysiology of Myocardial Infarction

In Myocardial Infarction, inadequate coronary blood flow rapidly results in myocardial ischemia in the affected area. The location and extent of the infarct determine the effects on cardiac function. Ischemia depresses cardiac function and triggers autonomic nervous system responses that exacerbate the imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Persistent ischemia results in tissue necrosis and scar tissue formation, with permanent loss of myocardial contractility in the affected area. Cardiogenic shock may develop because of inadequate CO from decreased myocardial contractility and pumping capacity.

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Pathophysiology of Congestive Heart Failure

Pathophysiology of Congestive Heart Failure

Right ventricular failure occurs when the right ventricle is unable to pump blood into the pulmonary circulation. Less blood is oxygenated and pressure increases in the right atrium and systemic venous circulation, which results in edema of the extremities.

Left ventricular failure occurs when the left ventricle in unable to pump blood into systemic circulation. Pressure increases in the left atrium and pulmonary veins; then the lungs become congested with blood, causing elevated pulmonary pressure and pulmonary edema.

Pathophysiology of AIDS/HIV 2

Pathophysiology of AIDS/HIV

Human beings produce antibodies against specific infections. When HIV infection takes place, anti-HIV antibodies are produced but they do not appear immediately. This is called the “window effect”. In some...

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Pathophysiology of Appendicitis

Appendicitis is inflammation of the vermiform appendix caused by an obstruction attributable to infection, structure, fecal mass, foreign body, or tumor. Appendicitis can affect either gender at any age, but...

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Pathophysiology of Leukemia

Leukemia is malignant neoplasms of the cells derived from either the myeloid or lymphoid line of the hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Proliferating abnormal and immature cells (blast)...

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Pathophysiology of Cholelithiasis/Cholecystitis

Pathophysiology of Cholelithiasis/Cholecystitis

Cholelithiasis is the presence of stones in the gallbladder. Cholecystitis is acute or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder. Choledocholithiasis is the presence of stones in the common bile duct.

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Pathophysiology of Hypertension

Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a disease of vascular regulation resulting from malfunction of arterial pressure control mechanisms (central nervous system, rennin-angiotensinaldosterone system, extracellular fluid volume.) the cause is unknown,...