Category: Fundamentals of Nursing

central-venous-catheter

How to measure CVP (Central Venous Pressure)

How to measure CVP (Central Venous Pressure)

It can be measured using an indwelling central venous catheter and either manually using a pressure manometer or electronically using a transducer. Usually, the manometer is used especially in wards. But in both ways, it must be ‘zeroed’ at the level of the right atrium. You may do this by taking it at level of the 4th intercostal space in the mid-axillary line while the patient is lying supine, each time at the same zero position.

blood transfusion complications

Blood Transfusion Complications

Blood transfusions always come with various side effects and complications. The health team, especially the doctors and nurses should be responsible in educating the patients receiving blood transfusion regarding the...

Thermal Therapy

Thermal Therapy

For a long time, early medical interventions involve use of two energies – the hot and cold energy. Focusing on the hot energy, thermal therapy has been widely used for...

Mechanism of Wound Healing

Wound Healing

Overview The human body has many methods of protecting itself from injury. When tissue injury occurs, the body stimulates inflammatory and immune responses and the process of wound healing would...

supine and prone patient position

Positioning Patients in Bed

Problems of contractures and deformities can often be prevented by proper positioning of the patient. Regardless of the position selected it is essential that the patient maintains a correct body...

Code of Ethics for Nurses

Code of Ethics for Nurses

Ethics originated from the Greeks with a word “ethos”. Ethos means moral duty in modern language. According to one reliable definition about ethics, it refers to a standard to examine...

Ethical Behavior

Ethical Behavior

Overview Ethics refers to well-founded standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues....