Dengue Fever Case Study
February 5, 2008 · 58 Comments
This case presentation aims to identify and determine the general heath problems and needs of the patient with an admitting diagnosis of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Type 1. This presentation also intends to help patient promote health and medical understanding of such condition through the application of the nursing skills.
- To raise the level of awareness of patient on health problems that she may encounter.
- To facilitate patient in taking necessary actions to solve and prevent the identified problems on her own.
- To help patient in motivating her to continue the health care provided by the health workers.
- To render nursing care and information to patient through the application of the nursing skills.
Dengue fever is an infectious disease carried by mosquitoes and caused by any of four related dengue viruses. This disease used to be called “break-bone” fever because it sometimes causes severe joint and muscle pain that feels like bones are breaking, hence the name. Health experts have known about dengue fever for more than 200 years.
Dengue fever is found mostly during and shortly after the rainy season in tropical and subtropical areas of
- Southeast Asia and China
- Middle East
- Caribbean and Central and South America
- Australia and the South and Central Pacific
An epidemic in Hawaii in 2001 is a reminder that many states in the United States are susceptible to dengue epidemics because they harbor the particular types of mosquitoes that transmit it. Worldwide, more than 100 million cases of dengue infection occur each year. This includes 100 to 200 cases reported annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), mostly in people who have recently traveled abroad. Many more cases likely go unreported because some health care providers do not recognize the disease. During the last part of the 20th century, many tropical regions of the world saw an increase in dengue cases. Epidemics also occurred more frequently and with more severity. In addition to typical dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome also have increased in many parts of the world.
Dengue fever can be caused by any one of four types of dengue virus: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. You can be infected by at least two, if not all four types at different times during your lifetime, but only once by the same type.
You can get dengue virus infections from the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they bite infected humans, and later transmit infection to other people they bite. Two main species of mosquito, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, have been responsible for all cases of dengue transmitted in this country. Dengue is not contagious from person to person.
Symptoms of typical uncomplicated (classic) dengue usually start with fever within 5 to 6 days after you have been bitten by an infected mosquito and include
- High fever, up to 105 degrees Fahrenheit
- Severe headache
- Retro-orbital (behind the eye) pain
- Severe joint and muscle pain
- Nausea and vomiting
The rash may appear over most of your body 3 to 4 days after the fever begins. You may get a second rash later in the disease. Symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever include all of the symptoms of classic dengue plus
- Marked damage to blood and lymph vessels
- Bleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin, causing purplish bruises
This form of dengue disease can cause death.
Symptoms of dengue shock syndrome-the most severe form of dengue disease-include all of the symptoms of classic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, plus
- Fluids leaking outside of blood vessels
- Massive bleeding
- Shock (very low blood pressure)
This form of the disease usually occurs in children (sometimes adults) experiencing their second dengue infection. It is sometimes fatal, especially in children and young adults.